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Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus is a generalist that can adapt to different ecological niches, serving as a valuable source of probiotics. The genome of L. rhamnosus X253 contains one chromosome and no plasmids, with a size of 2.99 Mb. Both single-copy orthologous gene-based phylogenetic analysis and average nucleotide identity indicated that dairy-derived L. rhamnosus X253 was most closely related to the human-intestine-derived strain L. rhamnosus LOCK908, rather than other dairy strains. The adaptation of L. rhamnosus X253 and the human-intestine-derived strain L. rhamnosus GG to different ecological niches was explained by structural variation analysis and COG annotation. Hemolytic assays, API ZYM assays, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed to validate risk-related sequences such as virulence factors, toxin-encoding genes, and antibiotic-resistance genes in the genomes of L. rhamnosus X253 and GG. The results showed that L. rhamnosus GG was able to use L-fucose, had a higher tolerance to bile salt, and adhered better to CaCo-2 cells. In contrast, L. rhamnosus X253 was capable of utilizing D-lactose, withstood larger quantities of hydrogen peroxide, and possessed excellent antioxidant properties. This study confirmed the safety and probiotic properties of L. rhamnosus X253 via complete genome and phenotype analysis, suggesting its potential as a probiotic.

Keywords: Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus; adaptation; genome; phenotype analysis; safety and probiotic characteristics.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosusEnhanced Bile Salt ResistanceBeneficial
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosusImproved Adherence AbilityBeneficial
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosusImproved Antioxidant LevelsBeneficial
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosusUnchanged Lactose UtilizationBeneficial

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