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Abstract

This study aims to evaluate the effects of probiotic Bacillus coagulans 13,002 (BCS) and prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on mice treated with the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (CTX). We found that both BCS and FOS, especially BCS, significantly alleviated CTX-induced injury by modulating intestinal-derived and fecal microbiota. BCS and BCS + FOS increased serum immunoglobulin levels, which were reduced by CTX. In addition, BCS and BCS + FOS upregulated IFN-γ and IL-4, which protect mucosal barriers and the balance of Th1/Th2. BCS promoted the growth of some beneficial bacteria, such as Bacteroides, Coprococcus, Enterococcus, Oscillospira, and Ruminococcus in mouse gut. In addition, BCS + FOS inhibited the growth of several harmful bacteria, including Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Corynebacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Sporosarcina, and Staphylococcus. Furthermore, BCS potentially improved the growth of Anaerotruncus bacteria, which can promote the production of butyrate acids. In summary, according our results suggest that BCS and FOS improved the immunity of mice with immunosuppression induced by CTX through modulating intestinal-derived and fecal microbiota.

Keywords: Bacillus coagulans; Cyclophosphamide; Fructo-oligosaccharide; Immunomodulatory; Intestinal-derived microbiota.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Bacillus coagulansImproved Growth of Beneficial BacteriaBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulansImproved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulansIncreased Barrier-Preserving Protein LevelsBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulansIncreased Butyric Acid ProductionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulansReduced Growth of Harmful BacteriaBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2Alleviated Chemotherapy-Induced InjuryBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2Elevated Serum Immunoglobulin LevelsBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2Improved Growth of Anaerotruncus BacteriaBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2Increased Beneficial Gut BacteriaBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2Reduced Harmful Gut BacteriaBeneficial
Moderate
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