Skip to main content

Bacillus subtilis as probiotic candidate for red sea bream: Growth performance, oxidative status, and immune response traits

  • 2018-08
  • Fish & Shellfish Immunology 79
    • Amr I. Zaineldin
    • S. Hegazi
    • S. Koshio
    • M. Ishikawa
    • Abdulnasser Bakr
    • Abeer El-keredy
    • M. Dawood
    • Serge Dossou
    • Weilong Wang
    • Z. Yukun

Abstract

The effects of dietary administration of Bacillus subtilis on the growth, digestive enzyme activity, blood chemistry, oxidative status and immune response of red sea bream (Pagrus major) were evaluated in the current study. Fish fed five different levels of B. subtilis at 0 (BS0), 1 × 104 (BS1), 1 × 106 (BS2), 1 × 108 (BS3) and 1 × 1010 (BS4) CFU kg-1 diet for 60 days. The obtained results showed that B. subtilis supplementation significantly improved growth performance (FBW, WG and SGR), feed utilization (FI, FCE, PER and PG) and whole-body protein content when compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the specific activities of amylase, protease and lipase enzymes up regulated significantly upon B. subtilis incorporation in red sea bream diets (P < 0.05). No changes have been reported on blood biochemical variables except for the plasma total protein, which increased significantly in fish fed BS3 diet when compared with the control diet (P < 0.05). Hematocrit, hemoglobin and the nitro blue tetrazolium values also reported the highest values significantly in fish fed B. subtilis, especially in case of BS3 and BS4 diets (P < 0.05). Serum bactericidal activity enhanced significantly in BS2, BS3 and BS4 groups (P < 0.05), while mucus bactericidal activity showed no significant activity among tested groups (P > 0.05). Serum lysozyme activity exhibited higher values in case of BS3 and BS4 groups than BS0 group (P < 0.05), while mucus lysozyme activity increased only in BS3 group. Also, serum peroxidase activity enhanced significantly in fish fed BS2 and BS3 diets (P < 0.05), however, no activities were observed in the collected mucus. All groups reflexed high tolerance ability against oxidative stress except for BS0 and BS1 groups. Additionally, catalase activity increased significantly in all B. subtilis fed groups when compared to BS0 group (P < 0.05). Considering the obtained results, the supplementation of B. subtilis in the diet of red sea bream at 1 × 108 and 1 × 1010 CFU kg-1 diet could improve the growth, feed utilization, health condition and immune response.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; Blood profile; Digestive enzymes; Growth; Immunity; Oxidative status; Probiotic; Red sea bream.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Bacillus SubtilisEnhanced Digestive Enzyme ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus SubtilisEnhanced Serum Peroxidase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus SubtilisImproved Antibacterial ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus SubtilisImproved Blood ChemistryBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus SubtilisImproved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Large
Bacillus SubtilisImproved Hematological ParametersBeneficial
Large
Bacillus SubtilisIncreased Oxidative Stress ToleranceBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus SubtilisIncreased Serum Lysozyme ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis AB22Enhanced Digestive Enzyme ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis AB22Enhanced Serum Peroxidase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis AB22Improved Serum Bactericidal ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis AB22Increased Catalase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis AB22Increased Oxidative Stress ToleranceBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis AB22Increased Plasma Protein LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis AB22Increased Serum Lysozyme LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis DE111Enhanced Digestive Enzyme ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis DE111Improved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis DE111Improved Hematological ParametersBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis DE111Improved Oxidative Stress ToleranceBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis DE111Increased Plasma Protein LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Improved Feed UtilizationBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Improved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Improved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Improved Oxidative Stress ToleranceBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Increased Plasma Protein LevelsBeneficial
Moderate

Pillser helps you make informed health decisions by providing comprehensive, unbiased information about supplements. This includes detailed research on supplement ingredients, their benefits, potential risks, and their overall efficacy. You can contribute by sharing your feedback and suggestions.

Send us an email at support@pillser.com.