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Abstract

Intestinal microflora is deranged in hemodialysis (HD) patients as an increase in aerobic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and a decrease in anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium . Bifidobacteria ferment carbohydrates to produce acetic acid and lactic acid, which inhibit the intestinal putrefaction. Thus, intake of Bifidobacteria effectively restores the disturbed microflora to normal. However, Bifidobacteria in most medical products and healthy foods cannot usually survive because of exposure to gastric juices before it reaches the intestines. A gastroresistant seamless capsule prevents Bifidobacteria from inactivation by acidic gastric juice and allows it to be active in the intestines. We showed that the oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum in a gastroresistant seamless capsule to HD patients is effective in decreasing the pre-HD serum levels of homocysteine, indoxyl sulfate, and triglyceride. The reduction in the serum level of homocysteine is mainly attributable to the supply of folate produced by Bifidobacterium longum in the human intestines.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
BifidobacteriumReduced Indoxyl Sulfate LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
BifidobacteriumReduced Pre-Dialysis Serum Triglyceride LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
BifidobacteriumReduced Serum Homocysteine LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum HA-135Reduced Indoxyl Sulfate LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum HA-135Reduced Serum Homocysteine LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum HA-135Reduced Triglyceride LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum MM-2Reduced Indoxyl Sulfate LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum MM-2Reduced Serum Homocysteine LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum MM-2Reduced Serum Triglyceride LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum SD-5588Increased Folate LevelsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum SD-5588Reduced Indoxyl Sulfate LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum SD-5588Reduced Serum Homocysteine LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum SD-5588Reduced Serum Triglyceride LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum SP54Reduced Indoxyl Sulfate LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum SP54Reduced Serum Homocysteine LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum SP54Reduced Serum Triglyceride LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum UABl-14Reduced Indoxyl Sulfate LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum UABl-14Reduced Serum Homocysteine LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum UABl-14Reduced Triglyceride LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
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