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The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing globally. Probiotics have been shown to be an effective intervention for diabetes. This study focused on the relieving effects and possible mechanisms of 16 strains of two dominant Bifidobacterium species (B. bifidum and B. adolescentis, which exist in the human gut at different life stages) on type 2 diabetes (T2D). The results indicated that more B. adolescentis strains appeared to be superior in alleviating T2D symptoms than B. bifidum strains. This effect was closely related to the ability of B. adolescentis to restore the homeostasis of the gut microbiota, increase the abundance of short-chain fatty acid-producing flora, and alleviate inflammation in mice with T2D. In addition, compared with B. bifidum, B. adolescentis had a higher number of core genes, and these genes were more evolutionarily stable, including unique environmental tolerance, carbon and nitrogen utilization genes, and a blood sugar regulation gene, glgP. This may be one of the reasons why B. adolescentis is more likely to colonize in the adult gut and show a superior ability to relieve T2D. This study provides insights into future studies aimed at investigating probiotics for the treatment of metabolic diseases.

Keywords: Bifidobacterium; genome; gut microbiota; inflammation; short-chain fatty acids; type 2 diabetes.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Bifidobacterium adolescentisImproved Insulin SensitivityBeneficial
Bifidobacterium adolescentisReduced Inflammation LevelsBeneficial
Bifidobacterium adolescentis iVS-1Increased Short-Chain Fatty Acid-Producing Gut FloraBeneficial
Bifidobacterium adolescentis iVS-1Reduced Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetic MiceBeneficial
Bifidobacterium adolescentis iVS-1Reduced Type 2 Diabetes SymptomsBeneficial
Bifidobacterium adolescentis iVS-1Restored Gut Microbiota HomeostasisBeneficial

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