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Abstract

We aimed to explore the effects of Bifidobacterium bifidum TMC3115 intervention on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) and gut microbiota in infants. A total 256 CMPA infants were randomly and evenly assigned into an intervention group (B. bifidum) and a control group (placebo). Allergic scores, anti-inflammatory responses, and secondary outcomes were measured. Fecal specimens were collected, and the gut microbiota were analyzed by using 16S rDNA sequencing. After 6-month B. bifidum intervention, B. bifidum TMC3115 consumption reduced allergic scores, and improved anti-inflammatory responses and secondary outcomes in CMPA infants. LEfSe analysis showed Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Turicibacter, Sutterella, and Parabacteroides were the most predominant phylum in the intervention group, whereas the Firmicutes (Anaerovibrio, Christensenellaceae, Oscillibacter, Bilophila, Dorea, and Roseburia) were most dominant phyla in the control group. Serum IgE or IgG2 had a strong relationship with α-diversity scores of gut microbiota. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: There is a high level of prevalence of milk allergy in infants, which is difficult to be treated. Bifidobacterium bifidum TMC3115 supplement reduced allergic scores, improved anti-inflammatory responses, and reduced serum level of IgE and increased the level of IgG2 in the infants. On the contrary, B. bifidum supplement increased the genus proportion of probiotics and reduced the proportion of pathogens. The improvement of gut microbiota will be beneficial in the prevention of milk allergy. B. bifidum TMC3115 reduces milk allergy in the infants by regulating gut microbiota, and should be developed a potential way in the prevention of infant milk allergy.

Keywords: Bifidobacterium bifidum; IgE; cow milk protein allergy; gut microbiota; infant.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
BifidobacteriumEnhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
BifidobacteriumImproved Gut Microbiome CompositionBeneficial
Moderate
BifidobacteriumIncreased Immunoglobulin G2 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
BifidobacteriumReduced Allergy SymptomsBeneficial
Large
BifidobacteriumReduced Serum IgE LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidumEnhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidumImproved Gut Microbiome CompositionBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidumIncreased Serum IgG2 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidumReduced Allergy SymptomsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidumReduced Serum Immunoglobulin E LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01Altered Gut Microbiota CompositionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01Elevated Serum IgG2 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01Enhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01Reduced Allergy SymptomsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01Reduced Serum Immunoglobulin E LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum Bb-02Elevated Serum IgG2 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum Bb-02Enhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum Bb-02Increased Probiotic Genus ProportionBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum Bb-02Reduced Milk Protein Allergy SymptomsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum Bb-02Reduced Serum Immunoglobulin E LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-06Elevated Serum IgG2 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-06Enhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-06Improved Gut Microbiota DiversityBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-06Increased Probiotic Genus ProportionBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-06Reduced Allergy SymptomsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-06Reduced Serum Immunoglobulin E LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1Elevated Serum IgG2 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1Enhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1Improved Secondary OutcomesBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1Reduced Allergy SymptomsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1Reduced Serum Immunoglobulin E LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum HA-132Elevated Serum IgG2 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum HA-132Enhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum HA-132Improved Gut Microbiome CompositionBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum HA-132Improved Secondary OutcomesBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum HA-132Reduced Allergy SymptomsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum HA-132Reduced Serum Immunoglobulin E LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum MAK53B66BElevated Serum IgG2 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum MAK53B66BEnhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum MAK53B66BImproved Gut Microbiome CompositionBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum MAK53B66BImproved Secondary OutcomesBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum MAK53B66BReduced Allergy SymptomsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum MAK53B66BReduced Serum Immunoglobulin E LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum SD-5857Elevated Serum IgG2 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum SD-5857Enhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum SD-5857Improved Gut Microbiome CompositionBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum SD-5857Reduced Allergy SymptomsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum SD-5857Reduced Serum Immunoglobulin E LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum SD-6575Enhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum SD-6575Modulated Gut Microbiota CompositionBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum SD-6575Reduced Allergy SymptomsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum SD-6576Elevated Serum IgG2 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum SD-6576Enhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum SD-6576Increased Gut Abundance of ProbioticsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum SD-6576Reduced Allergy SymptomsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum SD-6576Reduced Proportion of Pathogenic GenusBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum SD-6576Reduced Serum Immunoglobulin E LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum UABb-10Altered Gut Microbiota CompositionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum UABb-10Elevated Serum IgG2 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum UABb-10Enhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum UABb-10Reduced Allergy SymptomsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum UABb-10Reduced Serum Immunoglobulin E LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum VPro 51Elevated Serum IgG2 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum VPro 51Enhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum VPro 51Improved Gut Microbiome CompositionBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum VPro 51Reduced Allergy SymptomsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium bifidum VPro 51Reduced Serum Immunoglobulin E LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis M-63Elevated Serum IgG2 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis M-63Enhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium infantis M-63Increased Probiotic Genus ProportionBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis M-63Reduced Allergy SymptomsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium infantis M-63Reduced Proportion of Pathogenic GenusBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis M-63Reduced Serum Immunoglobulin E LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis VPro 53Elevated Serum IgG2 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis VPro 53Enhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium infantis VPro 53Increased Probiotic Genus ProportionBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis VPro 53Reduced Allergic ScoresBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis VPro 53Reduced Incidence of Milk AllergyBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium infantis VPro 53Reduced Proportion of Pathogenic GeneraBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis VPro 53Reduced Serum Immunoglobulin E LevelsBeneficial
Moderate

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