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Abstract

Bifidobacteria are known to inhibit, compete with and displace the adhesion of pathogens to human intestinal cells. Previously, we demonstrated that goat milk oligosaccharides (GMO) increased the attachment of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 to intestinal cells in vitro. In this study, we aimed to exploit this effect as a mechanism for inhibiting pathogen association with intestinal cells. We examined the synergistic effect of GMO-treated B. infantis on preventing the attachment of a highly invasive strain of Campylobacter jejuni to intestinal HT-29 cells. The combination decreased the adherence of C. jejuni to the HT-29 cells by an average of 42% compared to the control (non-GMO treated B. infantis). Increasing the incubation time of the GMO with the Bifidobacterium strain resulted in the strain metabolizing the GMO, correlating with a subsequent 104% increase in growth over a 24 h period when compared to the control. Metabolite analysis in the 24 h period also revealed increased production of acetate, lactate, formate and ethanol by GMO-treated B. infantis. Statistically significant changes in the GMO profile were also demonstrated over the 24 h period, indicating that the strain was digesting certain structures within the pool such as lactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, lacto-N-neohexaose 3'-sialyllactose, 6'-sialyllactose, sialyllacto-N-neotetraose c and disialyllactose. It may be that early exposure to GMO modulates the adhesion of B. infantis while carbohydrate utilisation becomes more important after the bacteria have transiently colonised the host cells in adequate numbers. This study builds a strong case for the use of synbiotics that incorporate oligosaccharides sourced from goat's milk and probiotic bifidobacteria in functional foods, particularly considering the growing popularity of formulas based on goat milk.

Keywords: Bifidobacterium; Campylobacter; HT-29 cells; adhesion; milk oligosaccharides; synbiotics.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Bifidobacterium infantisEnhanced Bacterial GrowthBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium infantisIncreased Production of Bioactive MetabolitesBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantisReduced Pathogen AssociationBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis BI02Enhanced Growth of Beneficial Gut BacteriaBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium infantis BI02Increased Production of Bioactive MetabolitesBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis BI02Reduced Pathogen AdherenceBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis M-63Enhanced Beneficial Metabolite ProductionBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis M-63Enhanced Growth of Bifidobacterium InfantisBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium infantis M-63Reduced Pathogen AdherenceBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis MAK22B04IEnhanced Probiotic GrowthBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium infantis MAK22B04IIncreased Production of Bioactive MetabolitesBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis MAK22B04IReduced Pathogen AdhesionBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis VPro 53Enhanced Beneficial Metabolite ProductionBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis VPro 53Enhanced Growth of Bifidobacterium InfantisBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium infantis VPro 53Reduced Adherence of Campylobacter jejuni to Intestinal CellsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantisEnhanced Beneficial Metabolite ProductionBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantisEnhanced Growth of Bifidobacterium InfantisBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantisReduced Adherence of Campylobacter jejuni to Intestinal CellsBeneficial
Moderate

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