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Characterization of Bacillus subtilis from gastrointestinal tract of hybrid Hulong grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × E. lanceolatus) and its effects as probiotic additives.

  • 2019-01
  • Fish & Shellfish Immunology 84
    • Sheng Zhou
    • D. Song
    • Xiaofeng Zhou
    • Xinliang Mao
    • Xuefeng Zhou
    • Sunli Wang
    • Jingguang Wei
    • Youhua Huang
    • Wenxiong Wang
    • S. Xiao
    • Q. Qin

Abstract

Probiotics are widely used for the improvement of animals' growth and health. However, few marine aquatic probiotics are applied and licensed in China. In this study, a Bacillus spp. strain was isolated from the Hulong grouper gastrointestinal tract, which was identified as a new strain of Bacillus subtilis and was named as 7k. B. subtilis 7k showed desirable capability of sporulation and resistance to heat, simulated gastric juice and simulated duodenum juice, indicating its potential as probiotics. Seven antimicrobial chemicals were found in the secretion of the B. subtilis 7k. B. subtilis 7k addition in diet promoted the growth rate of Hulong groupers. Moreover, B. subtilis 7k can inhibit infection by iridovirus, making B. subtilis 7k a suitable kind of probiotic for maintaining fishes' health. Our results also revealed that B. subtilis 7k induced non-specific immune response in Hulong grouper under virus infection. Hulong grouper fed by diets containing B. subtilis 7k at 108 and 1010 cfu g-1 for 4-8 weeks were significantly strengthened in serum lysozyme activity, serum alternative complement activity (ACH50), serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and phagocytic activity of head kidney leucocytes when compared with those fed by control diets. In conclusion, B. subtilis 7k was isolated and characterized to be a kind of process enduring, growth stimulating, immunity enhancing and health promoting probiotic using in grouper culture.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; Grouper; Growth; Innate immunity; Probiotic.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Bacillus SubtilisEnhanced Phagocytic Activity of Head Kidney LeukocytesBeneficial
Large
Bacillus SubtilisEnhanced Respiratory Burst ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus SubtilisImproved Antibacterial ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus SubtilisImproved Resistance to IridovirusBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus SubtilisImproved Specific Growth RateBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus SubtilisIncreased Serum Alternative Complement ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus SubtilisIncreased Serum Lysozyme ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus SubtilisIncreased Superoxide Dismutase ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis AB22Enhanced Growth RateBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis AB22Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis AB22Reduced Iridovirus InfectionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis HU58Enhanced Innate Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis HU58Enhanced Phagocytic Activity of Head Kidney LeukocytesBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis HU58Enhanced Respiratory Burst ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis HU58Improved Antibacterial ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis HU58Improved Specific Growth RateBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis HU58Increased Serum Alternative Complement ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis HU58Increased Serum Lysozyme ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis HU58Increased Superoxide Dismutase ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis HU58Reduced Iridovirus InfectionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Enhanced Growth RateBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Enhanced Respiratory Burst ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Improved Antibacterial ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Improved Nonspecific Humoral ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Improved Phagocytic Activity of Head Kidney LeukocytesBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Increased Serum Alternative Complement ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Increased Serum Lysozyme ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Increased Superoxide Dismutase ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Reduced Incidence of InfectionsBeneficial
Large

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