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Abstract

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus on skin mucus protein pattern, immune and appetite related genes expression as well as growth performance in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio). Three hundred healthy gold fish (2.5 ± 0.05) juveniles were randomly distributed in 12 glass aquariums (400-L; 25 fish per aquaria) and fed experimental diets contain different levels of L. acidophilus (0, 1.5 × 108, 3 × 108 and 6 × 108) for 8 weeks. SDS-PAGE analysis of skin mucus protein profile at the end of the feeding trial revealed differences in protein profile of probiotic fed fish and control group; even three new bands were observed in L. acidophilus treated groups. Furthermore, fish fed 6 × 108 CFU g-1 supplemented diet showed up-regulation of both TNF-1α and TNF-2α gene expression (P < 0.05). Evaluation of appetite related gene expression showed down-regulation of ghrelin in probiotic fed fish compared those of control treatment (P < 0.05). However, administration of different levels of L. acidophilus had no significant effects on growth performance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated that while no beneficial effects on growth performance, dietary L. acidophilus affects immune and appetite related genes expression as well as skin mucus protein profile.

Keywords: Appetite; Gene expression; Probiotic; Protein profile; SDS-PAGE.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lactobacillus acidophilusEnhanced Immune ResponseBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilusIncreased Skin Mucus Protein LevelsNeutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilusMaintained Growth PerformanceNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus acidophilusReduced Appetite Gene Expression (Ghrelin)Neutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus HA-122Altered Skin Mucus Protein ProfileNeutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus HA-122Increased Immune Gene ExpressionBeneficial
Small
Lactobacillus acidophilus HA-122Maintained Growth PerformanceNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus acidophilus HA-122Reduced Appetite Gene Expression (Ghrelin)Neutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92Altered Skin Mucus Protein ProfileNeutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92Reduced Appetite Gene Expression (Ghrelin)Neutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-02Down-Regulated Ghrelin Gene ExpressionNeutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-02Increased Skin Mucus Protein LevelsNeutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-02Maintained Growth PerformanceNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA1Down-Regulated Ghrelin Gene ExpressionNeutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA1No Significant Change in Growth PerformanceNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14Altered Skin Mucus Protein ProfileNeutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14Increased Immune Gene ExpressionBeneficial
Small
Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14Reduced Appetite Gene Expression (Ghrelin)Neutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5Altered Skin Mucus Protein ProfileNeutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5Enhanced Growth PerformanceNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5Reduced Appetite Gene Expression (Ghrelin)Neutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus MAK32L61AAltered Skin Mucus Protein ProfileNeutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus MAK32L61AImproved Growth PerformanceNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus acidophilus MAK32L61AReduced Appetite Gene Expression (Ghrelin)Neutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 30333Reduced Appetite Gene Expression (Ghrelin)Neutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus R0418Modulated Immune Gene ExpressionBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus R0418Reduced Appetite Gene Expression (Ghrelin)Neutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus SD-5212Down-Regulated Ghrelin Gene ExpressionNeutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus SD-5212Increased Skin Mucus Protein LevelsNeutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus SD-5212Maintained Growth PerformanceNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus acidophilus UALa01Increased Skin Mucus Protein LevelsNeutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus UALa01Maintained Growth PerformanceNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus acidophilus UALa01Reduced Appetite Gene Expression (Ghrelin)Neutral
Moderate

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