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Abstract

The present study assessed the effects of probiotic bacterium Bacillus coagulans ATCC 7050 (BC) fed at different inclusion levels (0 (BO), 1 × 106 (BC1), 1 × 107 (BC2) and 1 × 108 (BC3) CFU g-1 feed) on growth, feed utilization, body composition, intestinal morphology, microflora, immune response, and resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei. After 56 days of the feeding trial, the survival rate ranged from 83.33 to 94.17% with no significant difference between dietary treatments (P > 0.05). Dietary probiotic supplementation also affected the intestinal microflora composition. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria accounted for the majority of bacteria followed by Bacteroidetes irrespective of the group. At the genus level, the abundance of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Vibrio, Tenacibaculum, and Photobacterium significantly decreased (P < 0.05) with an increasing probiotic concentration, and BC3 group experiencing the least. Additionally, increasing probiotic inclusion in diet downregulated the abundance of Muricauda, Kangiella, and Shewanella in shrimps, with the least, observed in the BC3 group. However, beneficial bacteria Pseudoalteromonas significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the intestines of shrimp fed BC3 diet (P < 0.05) compared to other groups including the control. Compared to the control, a significant increase (P < 0.05) of the probiotic treated groups in the final weight, weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (K), activity of lysozyme (LYZ), acid phosphatase (ACP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB) in serum, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum and liver, and a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR), triglyceride (TG) in serum, and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and liver were achieved. Increasing probiotic treatment again improved the digestive ability, thus; a significant increase in the activities of lipase, amylase, trypsin, and an enhancement in the villus height, villus width, and muscle thickness of the intestines of the shrimps which correspondingly alleviated intestinal injury. Furthermore, the supplementation of probiotics in challenge test significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the resistance of shrimp against V. parahaemolyticus infection recording BC3 to receive the highest relative percentage survival (RPS) value of 76%. In conclusion, higher inclusion levels of probiotic BC at 1 × 108 CFU g-1 feed (BC3) in diets can be considered to enhance the growth, intestinal morphology and microflora, immune response and resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus of L. vannamei.

Keywords: Bacillus coagulans ATCC 7050; Growth; Immune; Litopenaus vannamei; Microflora.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Bacillus coagulansImproved Digestive Enzyme ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulansImproved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulansImproved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulansImproved Infection ResistanceBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulansImproved Intestinal MorphologyBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulansReduced Opportunistic Pathogenic Bacteria LevelsBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulansReduced Oxidative StressBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulans LactoSpore 1 billion CFUEnhanced Disease ResistanceBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans LactoSpore 1 billion CFUImproved Feed Conversion RatioBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulans LactoSpore 1 billion CFUImproved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulans LactoSpore 1 billion CFUImproved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans LactoSpore 1 billion CFUImproved Intestinal MorphologyBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans LactoSpore 1 billion CFUReduced Pathogenic Bacterial AbundanceBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856Improved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856Improved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856Improved Infection ResistanceBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856Improved Intestinal MorphologyBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856Reduced Harmful Gut MicrobiotaBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans ProDuraEnhanced Immune ResistanceBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans ProDuraImproved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans ProDuraImproved Intestinal MorphologyBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans ProDuraImproved Microflora CompositionBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulans SC208Improved Feed UtilizationBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans SC208Improved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulans SC208Improved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans SC208Improved Resistance to Pathogenic InfectionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans SNZ-1969Enhanced Disease ResistanceBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans SNZ-1969Improved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulans SNZ-1969Improved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans SNZ-1969Improved Intestinal MorphologyBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans SNZ-1969Improved Microflora CompositionBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2Enhanced Digestive Enzyme ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2Improved Beneficial Intestinal BacteriaBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2Improved Feed Conversion RatioBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2Improved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2Improved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2Improved Resistance to V. parahaemolyticus InfectionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2Reduced Lipid PeroxidationBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2Reduced Opportunistic Pathogenic Bacteria LevelsBeneficial
Large
Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2Reduced Serum Triglyceride LevelsBeneficial
Large

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