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Abstract

The effect of Bifidobacterium longum (4 x 10(8) viable cells/g diet) and a derivative of inulin ('Raftiline HP'; 5% w/w in diet) on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by the colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) has been studied. The concentration of ammonia, a putative tumour promoter produced by bacterial degradation of protein and urea, and the activities of certain bacterial enzymes thought to play a role in colon carcinogenesis, beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase were also assayed. Consumption of either B. longum or inulin was associated with a decrease (26 and 41%, respectively) in AOM-induced small ACF (i.e. those comprising 1-3 aberrant crypts per focus). Combined administration of the bifidobacterium and inulin resulted in more potent inhibition of ACF than administration of the two separately, achieving 80% inhibition of small ACF. Furthermore, the combined administration significantly decreased the incidence (by 59%) of large ACF (>4 aberrant crypts per focus), which are considered to be predictive of eventual tumour incidence. Since the dietary treatments were started 1 week after the carcinogen dose, the results suggest that B. longum and inulin may be affecting the early promotion phase of the carcinogenic process. Consumption of diets containing B. longum, inulin or both were also associated with decreases in beta-glucuronidase activity and ammonia concentration in the caecal contents. Both these factors have been associated with carcinogenesis of the colon in experimental animal models. In rats given inulin-containing diets (with or without B. longum) an increase in caecal wt and beta-glucosidase activity and a decrease in caecal pH were observed. The results suggest that consumption of B. longum or inulin was associated with potentially beneficial changes in caecal physiology and bacterial metabolic activity in relation to tumour risk and in the incidence of putative preneoplastic lesions in the colon. The results also indicated that combined treatment with the two agents was more effective in reducing colonic lesions.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Bifidobacterium longum B1-05Reduced Beta-Glucuronidase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum B1-05Reduced Caecal Ammonia ConcentrationBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum B1-05Reduced Cecal pH LevelsNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum B1-05Reduced Colonic Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum BI-05Reduced Aberrant Crypt Foci IncidenceBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum BI-05Reduced Enzyme ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum BL03Reduced Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum BL03Reduced Ammonia ConcentrationBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum BL03Reduced Beta-Glucuronidase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum BL03Reduced Carcinogen-Induced Large Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF)Beneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum BL03Reduced Tumor RiskBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum HA-135Reduced Ammonia ConcentrationBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum HA-135Reduced Beta-Glucuronidase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum HA-135Reduced Cecal pH LevelsNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum HA-135Reduced Colonic Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum HA-135Reduced Incidence of Large Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum iVE-15Reduced Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation with Combined AdministrationBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum iVE-15Reduced Aberrant Crypt Foci Induced by AzoxymethaneBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum iVE-15Reduced Incidence of Large ACFBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum KABP-042Increased Caecal WeightNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum KABP-042Reduced Aberrant Crypt Foci IncidenceBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum KABP-042Reduced Ammonia ConcentrationBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum KABP-042Reduced Beta-Glucuronidase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum KABP-042Reduced Cecal pH LevelsNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum MAK34B12LReduced AOM-Induced Small Colonic Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum MAK34B12LReduced Beta-Glucuronidase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum MAK34B12LReduced Caecal Ammonia ConcentrationBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum MAK34B12LReduced Cecal pH LevelsNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum MAK34B12LReduced Incidence of Large Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF)Beneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum MM-2Reduced Beta-Glucuronidase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum MM-2Reduced Caecal Ammonia ConcentrationBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum MM-2Reduced Colonic Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum MM-2Reduced Large Colonic Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum Rosell-175Increased Beta-Glucosidase ActivityNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum Rosell-175Reduced Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum Rosell-175Reduced Ammonia ConcentrationBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum Rosell-175Reduced Beta-Glucuronidase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum Rosell-175Reduced Cecal pH LevelsNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum SD-5588Increased Beta-Glucosidase ActivityNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum SD-5588Increased Caecal WeightNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum SD-5588Reduced Aberrant Crypt Foci Induced by AzoxymethaneBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum SD-5588Reduced Ammonia ConcentrationBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum SD-5588Reduced Beta-Glucuronidase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum SD-5588Reduced Cecal pH LevelsNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum SD-5588Reduced Incidence of Large Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum SP54Reduced Aberrant Crypt Foci Induced by AzoxymethaneBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum SP54Reduced AOM-Induced Small Aberrant Crypt Foci (Combined Administration)Beneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum SP54Reduced Incidence of Large Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF)Beneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longumIncreased Beta-Glucosidase ActivityNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longumReduced Ammonia ConcentrationBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longumReduced Beta-Glucuronidase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longumReduced Cecal pH LevelsNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longumReduced Large Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longumReduced Small Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum UABI-14Increased Beta-Glucosidase ActivityNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum UABI-14Increased Caecal WeightNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum UABI-14Reduced Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum UABI-14Reduced Ammonia LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum UABI-14Reduced Beta-Glucuronidase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum UABI-14Reduced Cecal pH LevelsNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum UABI-14Reduced Incidence of Large Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum UABI-14Reduced Aberrant Crypt Foci Induced by AzoxymethaneBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum UABI-14Reduced Beta-Glucuronidase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum UABI-14Reduced Caecal Ammonia ConcentrationBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum UABI-14Reduced Large Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium longum UABl-14Increased Beta-Glucosidase ActivityNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum UABl-14Reduced Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum UABl-14Reduced Ammonia ConcentrationBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum UABl-14Reduced Beta-Glucuronidase ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium longum UABl-14Reduced Cecal pH LevelsNeutral
Small
Bifidobacterium longum UABl-14Reduced Incidence of Large Aberrant Crypt FociBeneficial
Large

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