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Abstract

Background: A previous study revealed Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, a probiotic strain, could reduce mutans streptococci (MS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of L. paracasei SD1 on the colonization of MS, and whether caries lesions developed.

Methods: After informed consent, 122 children were recruited and randomly assigned to the probiotic or control groups. The probiotic group received milk-powder containing L. paracasei SD1 and the control group received standard milk-powder once daily for six months. Salivary MS and lactobacilli were enumerated using differential culture at baseline and at three-month intervals for 12 months. The persistence of L. paracasei SD1 was investigated using AP-PCR for DNA-fingerprinting. Oral health was examined at baseline and at the end of the study according to WHO criteria.

Results: The long-term consumption could prolong colonization of L. paracasei SD1. Significantly reduced MS counts and increased lactobacilli levels were found among children in the probiotic group. There were less caries lesions in the probiotic group at the end of the study. A significant reduction of the development of new caries lesions (4.5 times) was observed in the high caries risk group but not in the low caries risk group.

Conclusions: Results demonstrate that the long-term daily ingestion of the human-derived probiotic L. paracasei SD1 significantly reduces the number of MS and caries risk in the high caries group.

Keywords: Lactobacillus paracasei SD1; dental caries; mutans streptococci; probiotics.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lactobacillus casei SD-5213Reduced Dental CariesBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei SD-5213Reduced Mutans Streptococcus CountsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei 431Reduced Caries LesionsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus paracasei 431Reduced Mutans Streptococcus CountsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei DSM 13434Reduced Caries LesionsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus paracasei DSM 13434Reduced Caries RiskBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei DSM 13434Reduced Mutans Streptococci LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei HA-196Reduced Caries IncidenceBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei HA-196Reduced Salivary Levels of Mutans StreptococciBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502Reduced Dental CariesBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502Reduced Mutans Streptococci LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei UALpc-04Reduced Dental CariesBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei UALpc-04Reduced Mutans Streptococci ColonizationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei UALs-04Increased Colonization by Lactobacillus paracasei SD1Beneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei UALs-04Reduced Caries RiskBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei UALpc-04Reduced Mutans Streptococci LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei VPro 224Increased Lactobacilli LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei VPro 224Reduced Caries LesionsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus paracasei VPro 224Reduced Salivary Levels of Mutans StreptococciBeneficial
Large

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