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Abstract

Several pathways link type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus to the gut microbiome. By modifying the gut microbiota (GM), probiotics may be useful in the treatment of T2D. Lactobacillus plantarum Dad-13 is an indigenous Indonesian probiotic strain that has colonized the digestive tracts of healthy Indonesian adults. Furthermore, the GM of Indonesians is dominated by L. plantarum. The probiotic L. plantarum Dad-13 is likely suitable for Indonesians. This study aimed to assess the effect of the probiotic L. plantarum Dad-13 on metabolic profiles and GM of women with T2D in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Twenty women from each group of forty T2D patients received either a probiotic or a placebo. The probiotic group consumed 1 g skim milk powder containing 1010 CFU/g L. plantarum daily for 11 weeks. The placebo group received 1 g skim milk powder only daily for 11 weeks. At the start and end of the experiment, anthropometric measures, dietary intake surveys, blood samples, and fecal samples were obtained. The GM analysis of all samples was performed using polymerase chain reaction, and Illumina Novaseq was applied to the selected samples from each group at the beginning and end of the trial. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed with gas chromatography. The level of HbA1c in the probiotic group (n:10) significantly decreased from 9.34 ± 2.79% to 8.32 ± 2.04%. However, in comparison with the placebo (n:8), L. plantarum Dad-13 supplementation did not significantly decrease the HbA1c level. No significant change was observed in the fasting blood sugar and total cholesterol levels in either group. The GM analysis showed that L. plantarum Dad-13 supplementation resulted in a considerable increase in the L. plantarum number. No significant changes were observed in the Bifidobacterium and Prevotella populations. In addition, no significant change was observed in the fecal pH and SCFA (e.g., acetic acid, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA) after supplementation with L. plantarum Dad-13.

Keywords: HbA1c; SCFA; anthropometric; pH fecal; probiotic.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DIncreased Gut Lactobacillus plantarum PopulationNeutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DReduced Blood HbA1c LevelsBeneficial
Small
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DStable Fasting Blood Sugar LevelNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DUnchanged Total CholesterolNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus plantarum L-137Increased Gut Lactobacillus plantarum PopulationNeutral
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum L-137Reduced Blood HbA1c LevelsBeneficial
Small
Lactobacillus plantarum N13Increased Oral Colonization of Lactiplantibacillus plantarumBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum N13Reduced Blood HbA1c LevelsBeneficial
Small

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