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Abstract

The present study was conducted to investigate effects of Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum parameters, digestive enzymes, intestinal morphology, and colonic microbiota in piglets. A total of 72 piglets were weighed and randomly allotted into three treatments (four replication pens per treatment with six piglets/pen) for a 28-day experiment. The dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet (control group, CTR), basal diet supplementation with antibiotic (antibiotic group, ABT), and basal diet supplementation with 0.1% Bacillus subtilis (probiotic group, PBT). The average daily gain of body weight increased in both the ABT and PBT groups, and dietary antibiotics decreased the feed:gain ratio (F:G), as compared to the CTR group (P < 0.05). Both ABT and PBT piglets had increased serum triglycerides and lipase, amylase, maltase activities and villus height:crypt depth ratio (V/C) in ileum (P < 0.05). The PBT group also showed an increase in serum glucose and villus height in the ileum (P < 0.05). Dietary antibiotics increased Lactobacillus johnsonii, as compared to the CTR group, but decreased bacterial diversity and increased Escherichia coli, as compared to the PBT group (P < 0.05). Piglets dietary with B. subtilis modulated the microbiota by increasing the abundance of Firmicutes (L. johnsonii, L. reuteri) and decreasing the abundance of E. coli, as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). These results indicate that dietary of B. subtilis improves growth performance and intestinal health and can be a promising alternative to antibiotics in piglets diet.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; Colonic microbiota; Growth performance; Intestinal function; Piglets; Serum parameters.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Bacillus SubtilisEnhanced Digestive Enzyme ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus SubtilisImproved Colonic Microbiota CompositionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus SubtilisImproved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Large
Bacillus SubtilisImproved Intestinal MorphologyBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus SubtilisImproved Intestinal Villus HeightBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis AB22Enhanced Digestive Enzyme ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis AB22Improved Intestinal MorphologyBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis AB22Increased Serum Glucose LevelsBeneficial
Small
Bacillus subtilis AB22Modulated Colonic MicrobiotaBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis DE11Improved Blood Glucose LevelsBeneficial
Small
Bacillus subtilis DE11Improved Colonic Microbiota CompositionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis DE11Improved Gastrointestinal HealthBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis DE11Improved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis DE111Improved Colonic Microbiota CompositionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis DE111Improved Digestive Enzyme ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis DE111Improved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis DE111Improved Intestinal MorphologyBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis DE111Increased Blood Glucose LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis DE111Increased Serum TriglyceridesBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis HU58Improved Colonic Microbiota CompositionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis HU58Improved Digestive Enzyme ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis HU58Improved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis HU58Improved Intestinal MorphologyBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis MB40Improved Colonic Microbiota CompositionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis MB40Improved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis MB40Improved Intestinal MorphologyBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis MB40Improved Serum ParametersBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis MB40Increased Blood Glucose LevelsBeneficial
Moderate

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