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Effects of Dietary Lactiplantibacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum L7, Alone or in Combination with Limosilactobacillus reuteri P16, on Growth, Mucosal Immune Responses, and Disease Resistance of Cyprinus carpio

  • 2021-08-07
  • Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins 13(6)
    • Sib Sankar Giri
    • Hyoun Joong Kim
    • Sang Guen Kim
    • Sang Wha Kim
    • Jun Kwon
    • Sung Bin Lee
    • Kang Jeong Woo
    • Won Joon Jung
    • Min Jung Kim
    • Venkatachalam Sukumaran
    • Se Chang Park


Skin mucosal lymphoid tissues of fish are the first line of defence against pathogen invasion. We investigated the effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum L7, singularly or in combination with Limosilactobacillus reuteri P16, on mucosal immunity and diseases resistance of carp Cyprinus carpio. C. carpio (average weight: 26.28 ± 1.02 g) were divided into five experimental groups. Fish in each group were fed with one of the following potential probiotic-supplemented diets: control (0 - basal diet), D1 (107 CFU/g L7), D2 (108 CFU/g L7), D3 (109 CFU/g L7), and D4 (108 CFU/g L7 + 108 CFU/g P16). Eight weeks post-feeding, growth performance was higher in D4, with a final weight gain of 67.18 ± 1.47 g. Results showed a significantly higher skin mucosal lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase, mucus protein level, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in D2 and D4 compared to the control. However, potential probiotics had no significant effect on skin mucosal immunoglobulin level. Skin mucus of D4 exhibited stronger inhibition zones against pathogenic bacterial strains. Moreover, digestive enzyme activities (protease, lipase) were highest in D4. Intesinal lactic acid bacterial counts of fish fed combind probiotics (i.e. D4) was significantly higher than the control. Further, supplementation of potential probiotics altered the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines. Fish from D4 exhibited significantly higher relative post-challenge survival (69.7%) against Aeromonas hydrophila, followed by D2 (66.67%). Therefore, the inclusion of L. plantarum subsp. plantarum L7 at 108 CFU/g or in combination with L. reuteri P16 could enhance the growth performance, mucosal immune responses, and disease resistance of C. carpio.

Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes; Common carp; Mucosal immunity; Probiotics; Specific growth rate; pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KABP™-022Altered Cytokine Gene ExpressionBeneficial
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KABP™-022Enhanced Digestive Enzyme ActivityBeneficial
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KABP™-022Enhanced Disease ResistanceBeneficial
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KABP™-022Enhanced Skin Mucosal Immune ParametersBeneficial
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KABP™-022Improved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KABP™-022Increased Inhibition of Pathogenic BacteriaBeneficial
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KABP™-022Increased Lactic Acid Bacteria LevelsBeneficial

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