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Abstract

In the present study, we reported 18 LAB strains isolated from the intestinal contents of Cyprinus carpio, and their probiotic properties both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that 9 of them had higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties, effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5) and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 0.5%) conditions, and inhibited the growth of 4 pathogens. Among them, Lactococcus lactis Q-8, Lactococcus lactis Q-9, and Lactococcus lactis Z-2 showed the strongest adhesion abilities and inhibition of pathogen adhesion to mucin. When the fish consumed diets containing these 3 strains (5 × 108 CFU/g) for 8 weeks, the weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) had significantly (P < 0.05) increased, especially with L. lactis Q-8, which had a WG of 231.45%, and SGR of 2.22%. Survival rate in each LAB supplementation group was also significantly higher than that in control group during the feeding period (P < 0.05). For the cytokines expression levels in serum, different expression patterns were also observed. Before the infection with Aeromonas hydrophila, L. lactis supplementation significant up-regulated protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12) compared with negative (CK1) group, while these cytokines were significantly lower than those in positive (CK2) group after infection. However, whether infected or not, the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β) were significantly increased in L. lactis Q-8, L. lactis Q-9, and L. lactis Z-2 treatment groups. In conclusion, these 3 L. lactis strains screened from common carp were effective in improving growth, innate immunity and disease resistance. Based on the physiological characteristics in our study, they might be used as potential probiotics in aquaculture.

Keywords: Cyprinus carpio L.; Cytokines; Growth; Immunomodulatory; Lactococcus lactis.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lactococcus lactisEnhanced Disease ResistanceBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactisEnhanced Innate Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactisImproved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactisRegulated Cytokine ExpressionBeneficial
Moderate
Lactococcus lactis L1A-23Enhanced Disease ResistanceBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis L1A-23Enhanced Innate Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactisEnhanced Disease ResistanceBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactisEnhanced Innate Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactisImproved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis R1058Enhanced Disease ResistanceBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis R1058Enhanced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine ResponseBeneficial
Moderate
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis R1058Improved Cell Survival RatesBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis R1058Increased Anti-inflammatory CytokinesBeneficial
Moderate
Lactococcus lactis UALl-08Enhanced Disease ResistanceBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis UALl-08Enhanced Innate Immune ResponseBeneficial
Moderate
Lactococcus lactis UALl-08Improved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis UALl-08Increased Plasma Anti-inflammatory Cytokine LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactococcus lactis VPro 34Enhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Moderate
Lactococcus lactis VPro 34Enhanced Disease ResistanceBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis VPro 34Enhanced Innate Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis VPro 34Improved Cell Survival RatesBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis VPro 34Improved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis VPro 42Enhanced Disease ResistanceBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis VPro 42Enhanced Innate Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactococcus lactis VPro 42Improved Growth PerformanceBeneficial
Large

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