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Abstract

The present study investigated the effect of enriched Artemia with Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, reproductive factors, proximate composition, intestinal microflora, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila of ornamental fish, Poecilia latipinna. Using a completely randomized design, the experiment included three groups. The first group was fed with commercial food without any probiotic. The second group was fed with unenriched Artemia, and the last group consumed long-time enriched Artemia with Bacillus subtilis. The bacteria B. subtilis with a density of 1 × 105 CFU mL-1 was added daily to Artemia culture medium. The total microflora and Bacillus subtilis counts were significantly increased in enriched Artemia compared to the unenriched group (P < 0.05). In fish fed groups, growth factors did not show any significant difference (P > 0.05). The maximum relative fecundity (28.65 ± 2.52 egg number g-1), fry production (62.93 ± 4.6 individual per female), and fry survival (70.97 ± 1.56%) obtained in the third group were found to be significantly more than those in the first and the second groups. Moreover, intestinal bacterial count for Bacillus revealed that the higher concentration of bacteria was significantly related to the third group (6.24 ± 0.11 log CFU g-1) (P < 0.05). Maximum protein and fat contents were observed in fish fed with Bacillus-enriched Artemia; however, no significant difference was found between control and unenriched Artemia groups (P > 0.05). The highest amount of ash was observed in fish fed with commercial food without any probiotic (P < 0.05). At the end of the feeding period, each of the three groups along with positive group (oxytetracycline 100 mg kg-1 of commercial food) was exposed to A. hydrophila (BCCM5/LMG3770) bacteria intraperitoneally. Based on the results, the lowest cumulative mortality was significantly found in group three (68.75 ± 3.6%) and positive group (62.5 ± 7.0%) compared to control and unenriched Artemia groups (P < 0.05). Hence, B. subtilis with a concentration of 1 × 105 CFU mL-1 during the period of Artemia culturing can improve the reproductive parameters, intestinal microflora, and resistance to pathogenic bacteria of Poecilia latipinna.

Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila; Artemia; Bacillus subtilis; Poecilia latipinna; Probiotics; Reproduction.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Bacillus SubtilisEnhanced Resistance to Pathogenic BacteriaBeneficial
Large
Bacillus SubtilisImproved Microflora CompositionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus SubtilisImproved Reproductive HealthBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis AB22Enhanced Resistance to Pathogenic BacteriaBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis AB22Improved Microflora CompositionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis AB22Improved Reproductive Health ParametersBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis DE111Enhanced Resistance to Pathogenic BacteriaBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis DE111Improved Microflora CompositionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis DE111Improved Reproductive Health ParametersBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis HU58Improved Intestinal MicrofloraBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis HU58Improved Reproductive Health ParametersBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis HU58Improved Resistance to Aeromonas HydrophilaBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis MB40Improved Reproductive Health ParametersBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis MB40Improved Resistance to InfectionsBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis MB40Increased Intestinal Microflora DiversityBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Enhanced Resistance to Pathogenic BacteriaBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Improved Microflora CompositionBeneficial
Large
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Improved Nutritional CompositionBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus subtilis SNZ-1972Improved Reproductive Health ParametersBeneficial
Large

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