Skip to main content

Immunomodulatory effects of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis TH10 on murine macrophage cells

  • 2012-09-30
  • MicrobiologyOpen 1(4)
    • T. Itoh
    • Y. Miyake
    • A. Onda
    • Junko Kubo
    • M. Ando
    • Y. Tsukamasa
    • Muneaki Takahata


The objective of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis TH10 (hk-TH10) and its signal transduction on murine macrophage RAW264 cells. RAW264 cells produced nitric oxide (NO) following hk-TH10 treatment. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying hk-TH10-stimulated NO production, we further measured NO production in RAW264 cells treated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 inhibitor peptide, NF-κB inhibitor, TLR1-siRNA, TLR2-siRNA, and TLR-6 siRNA. Furthermore, the activation of TLR2-TLR1/6 pathway molecules was analyzed by Western blotting. The result of this study showed that hk-TH10 stimulates NO in RAW264 cells through the activation of the TLR2-TLR1/6 pathway. From our findings, we can conclude that hk-TH10 isolated from a traditional side-dish fermented food (tempeh) may facilitate host immunomodulation.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Enterococcus faecalis TH10Enhanced Nitric Oxide ProductionBeneficial

Pillser helps you make informed health decisions by providing comprehensive, unbiased information about supplements. This includes detailed research on supplement ingredients, their benefits, potential risks, and their overall efficacy. You can contribute by sharing your feedback and suggestions.

Send us an email at