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Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 Alleviates Liver Injury

  • 2021-06-29
  • mSystems 6(3)
    • L. Lv
    • C. Yao
    • Ren Yan
    • Huiyong Jiang
    • Qiangqiang Wang
    • Kaicen Wang
    • Siqi Ren
    • Shandong Jiang
    • Jiafeng Xia
    • Shengjie Li
    • Ying Yu

Abstract

Although the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 is used worldwide, its effect on liver diseases remains unelucidated. Here, 32 rats were divided into four groups, gavaged with L. acidophilus LA14 (3 × 109 CFU) or phosphate-buffered saline for 7 days, and then intraperitoneally injected with d-galactosamine or saline. After 24 h, blood, liver, ileum, and feces samples were collected for liver injury, inflammation, intestinal barrier, gut microbiota, metabolome, and transcriptome analyses. Pretreatment with L. acidophilus LA14 alleviated the d-galactosamine-induced elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bile acids; mitigated the histological injury to the liver and gut; and suppressed the inflammatory cytokines macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), MIP-3α, and MCP-1. L. acidophilus LA14 also ameliorated the d-galactosamine-induced dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and metabolism, such as the enrichment of Bacteroides sp. strain dnLKV3 and the depletion of Streptococcus, butanoic acid, and _N-_acetyl-d-glucosamine. The underlying mechanism of L. acidophilus LA14 included prevention of not only the d-galactosamine-induced upregulation of infection- and tumor-related pathways but also the d-galactosamine-induced downregulation of antioxidation-related pathways during this process, as reflected by the liver transcriptome and proteome analyses. Furthermore, the administration of L. acidophilus LA14 to healthy rats did not alter the tested liver indicators but significantly enriched the beneficial Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, promoted metabolism and regulated pathways to improve immunity. The ability of L. acidophilus LA14 to alleviate liver injury was further confirmed with an acetaminophen-induced mouse model. These results might provide a reference for future studies on the application of L. acidophilus LA14 for the prevention of liver injury. IMPORTANCE The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 is widely used, but its effect on liver diseases has not been elucidated. We explored the protective effect of L. acidophilus LA14 on the liver using rats with d-galactosamine-induced liver injury. Pretreatment with L. acidophilus LA14 alleviated the d-galactosamine-induced elevation of serum ALT, AST, ALP, and bile acids, mitigated the histological injury to the liver and gut, and suppressed the inflammatory cytokines MIP-1α, MIP-3α, and MCP-1. These effects were correlated with the modulations of the gut microbiome, metabolome, and hepatic gene expression induced by L. acidophilus LA14. Moreover, the ability of L. acidophilus LA14 to alleviate liver injury was further confirmed with an acetaminophen-induced mouse model. These results might provide a reference for future studies on the application of L. acidophilus LA14 for the prevention of liver injury.

Keywords: Lactobacillus acidophilus; acute liver injury; metabolome; microbiota; transcriptome.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-02Alleviated Liver InjuryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-02Enhanced Beneficial Gut MicrobiotaBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-02Improved Gut Microbiota BalanceBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-02Regulated Liver Gene ExpressionBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA1Alleviated Liver InjuryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA1Alleviated Symptoms in Acetaminophen-Induced ModelBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA1Improved Gut Microbiota CompositionBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA1Improved Immunity PathwaysBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA1Prevented Liver Pathway DysregulationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14Increased Beneficial Gut MicrobiotaBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14Reduced Liver InjuryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5Alleviated Liver InjuryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5Improved Gut Microbiota BalanceBeneficial
Moderate

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