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Lactobacillus gasseri RW2014 Ameliorates Hyperlipidemia by Modulating Bile Acid Metabolism and Gut Microbiota Composition in Rats

  • 2022-11-22
  • Nutrients 14(23)
    • Xianping Li
    • Yu-chun Xiao
    • Yuanming Huang
    • Liqiong Song
    • Mengde Li
    • Zhihong Ren

Abstract

Hyperlipidemia is a leading risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Dietary supplementation with probiotics has been suggested as an alternative intervention to lower cholesterol. In the current study, we isolated a strain of Lactobacillus gasseri RW2014 (LGA) from the feces of a healthy infant fed with breast milk, and it displayed bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. Using this strain we determined its cholesterol-lowering and fatty liver-improving functions. SD rats were randomly divided into four groups. The control rats were fed a commercial chow diet and the other three groups were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for a 7-week experiment period. After two weeks of feeding, the rats in PBS, simvastin, and LGA group were daily administered through oral gavage with 2 mL PBS, simvastin (1 mg/mL), and 2 × 109 CFU/mouse live LGA in PBS, respectively. After five weeks of such treatment, the rats were euthanized and tissue samples were collected. Blood lipid and inflammatory factors were measured by ELISA, gut microbiota was determined by 16S rRNA sequencing, and bile acids profiles were detected by metabolomics. We found that LGA group had lower levels of blood cholesterol and liver steatosis compared to the simvastin group. LGA also significantly reducedthe levels of inflammatory factors in the serum, including TNFα, IL-1β, MCP-1, IL-6, and exotoxin (ET), and increased the levels of short-chain fatty acids in feces, including isobutyric acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, valeric acid, and hexanoic acid. In addition, LGA altered the compositions of gut microbiota as manifested by the increased ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroides and the relative abundance of Blautia genus. Targeted metabolomics results showed that bile acids, especially free bile acids and secondary bile acids in feces, were increased in LGA rats compared with the control rats. Accordingly, the rats administrated with LGA also had a higher abundance of serum bile acids, including 23-norcholic acid, 7-ketolithocholic acid, β-muricholic acid, cholic acid, and deoxycholic acid. Together, this study suggests that LGA may exert a cholesterol-lowering effect by modulating the metabolism of bile acids and the composition of gut microbiota.

Keywords: Lactobacillus gasseri; bile acids; gut microbiota; hyperlipidemia; metabolism; probiotics.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lactobacillus gasseri SD-5585Altered Gut Microbiome CompositionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus gasseri SD-5585Increased Fecal Short-Chain Fatty Acid LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus gasseri SD-5585Reduced Blood Serum CholesterolBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus gasseri SD-5585Reduced Liver FatBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus gasseri SD-5585Reduced Serum Inflammatory FactorsBeneficial
Moderate
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