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Abstract

Health and wellbeing are significantly impaired by alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and although some lactic acid bacteria strains have been shown previously to relieve ALD symptoms, the mechanisms behind these effects are still unclear. Here, the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing alcohol was fed to C57BL/6J mice for 6 weeks to build a chronic alcoholic liver lesion model to study the protective effects and possible mechanisms of Lactobacillus mixture (Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0344 and Lactobacillus acidophilus KLDS1.0901). The results showed that Lactobacillus mixture improved intestinal epithelial permeability and reduced the serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. Furthermore, Lactobacillus mixture inhibited liver lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation by regulating AMPK, Nrf-2, and TLR4/NF-κB pathways. Importantly, the Lactobacillus mixture modulated the gut microbiota, resulting in increased short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producers and decreased Gram-negative bacteria. Taken together, these findings indicated that the Lactobacillus mixture could positively regulate the gut microbiota, causing increased levels of SCFAs, which inhibited alcohol-induced liver lipid accumulation and oxidative stress through the gut-liver axis. Moreover, following administration of the Lactobacillus mixture, the improvement of intestinal epithelial permeability and the reduction of Gram-negative bacteria led to the decrease of LPS entering the portal vein, thereby inhibiting alcohol-induced liver inflammation.

Keywords: Lactobacillus; alcoholic liver injury; gene expression; gut microbiota; lipopolysaccharide; short-chain fatty acids.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lactobacillus plantarumAltered Gut MicrobiotaBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarumImproved Intestinal Epithelial PermeabilityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarumReduced Hepatic Oxidative StressBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarumReduced Inflammation LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarumReduced Liver Lipid AccumulationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarumReduced Plasma Lipopolysaccharide LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DImproved Intestinal Epithelial PermeabilityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DIncreased Short-Chain Fatty Acid ProductionBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DReduced Alcohol-Induced Liver Lipid AccumulationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DReduced Alcohol-Induced Liver Oxidative StressBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DReduced Gram-Negative Bacteria CountBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DReduced Hepatic Oxidative StressBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DReduced Liver InflammationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DReduced Liver Lipid AccumulationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DReduced Plasma Lipopolysaccharide LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DReduced Portal Vein LPS LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum LP-01Improved Intestinal Epithelial PermeabilityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum LP-01Increased Levels of Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs)Beneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum LP-01Reduced Gram-Negative Bacteria CountBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum LP-01Reduced Hepatic Oxidative StressBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum LP-01Reduced Inflammation LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum LP-01Reduced Liver Lipid AccumulationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum LP-01Reduced Plasma Lipopolysaccharide LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum LP09Altered Gut MicrobiotaBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum LP09Improved Intestinal Epithelial PermeabilityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum LP09Reduced Hepatic Oxidative StressBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum LP09Reduced Liver InflammationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum LP09Reduced Liver Lipid AccumulationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum LP09Reduced Plasma Lipopolysaccharide LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
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