Skip to main content
Supplement Research and Comparison WebsiteBest Price GuaranteeAbout Us
Supplement Research and Comparison Website

Lactobacillus rhamnosus attenuates Thai chili extracts induced gut inflammation and dysbiosis despite capsaicin bactericidal effect against the probiotics, a possible toxicity of high dose capsaicin

  • 2021-12-23
  • PLOS ONE 16(12)
    • Wimonrat Panpetch
    • Peerapat Visitchanakun
    • Wilasinee Saisorn
    • A. Sawatpanich
    • Piraya Chatthanathon
    • N. Somboonna
    • S. Tumwasorn
    • A. Leelahavanichkul

Abstract

Because of a possible impact of capsaicin in the high concentrations on enterocyte injury (cytotoxicity) and bactericidal activity on probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 (L34) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), the probiotics derived from Thai and Caucasian population, respectively, were tested in the chili-extract administered C57BL/6 mice and in vitro experiments. In comparison with placebo, 2 weeks administration of the extract from Thai chili in mice caused loose feces and induced intestinal permeability defect as indicated by FITC-dextran assay and the reduction in tight junction molecules (occludin and zona occludens-1) using fluorescent staining and gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Additionally, the chili extracts also induced the translocation of gut pathogen molecules; lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and (1→3)-β-d-glucan (BG) and fecal dysbiosis (microbiome analysis), including reduced Firmicutes, increased Bacteroides, and enhanced total Gram-negative bacteria in feces. Both L34 and LGG attenuated gut barrier defect (FITC-dextran, the fluorescent staining and gene expression of tight junction molecules) but not improved fecal consistency. Additionally, high concentrations of capsaicin (0.02-2 mM) damage enterocytes (Caco-2 and HT-29) as indicated by cell viability test, supernatant cytokine (IL-8), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and transepithelial FITC-dextran (4.4 kDa) but were attenuated by Lactobacillus condition media (LCM) from both probiotic-strains. The 24 h incubation with 2 mM capsaicin (but not the lower concentrations) reduced the abundance of LGG (but not L34) implying a higher capsaicin tolerance of L34. However, Lactobacillus rhamnosus fecal abundance, using qRT-PCR, of L34 or LGG after 3, 7, and 20 days of the administration in the Thai healthy volunteers demonstrated the similarity between both strains. In conclusion, high dose chili extracts impaired gut permeability and induced gut dysbiosis but were attenuated by probiotics. Despite a better capsaicin tolerance of L34 compared with LGG in vitro, L34 abundance in feces was not different to LGG in the healthy volunteers. More studies on probiotics with a higher intake of chili in human are interesting.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosusReduced Enterocyte DamageBeneficial
Moderate
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosusReduced Gut Barrier DefectBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosusReduced Enterocyte DamageBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1Attenuated Gut DysbiosisBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1Reduced Enterocyte DamageBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1Reduced Gut Barrier DefectBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1Reduced Gut PermeabilityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LCS-742Improved Capsaicin ToleranceBeneficial
Small
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LCS-742Reduced DysbiosisBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LCS-742Reduced Enterocyte DamageBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LCS-742Reduced Gut Barrier DefectBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR04Improved Gut Barrier FunctionBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR04Reduced Enterocyte Injury from CapsaicinBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR05Improved Gut Microbiota BalanceBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR05Improved Intestinal Barrier FunctionBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR05Reduced InflammationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR06Improved Barrier IntegrityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR06Reduced Enterocyte DamageBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR06Reduced Intestinal PermeabilityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LRa05Reduced Enterocyte DamageBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LRa05Reduced Gut Barrier DefectBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus lysate powderNo Change in Fecal Abundance of L34 or LGGNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus rhamnosus lysate powderReduced Enterocyte DamageBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus lysate powderReduced Gut Barrier DefectBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus MAK79L08RImproved Capsaicin ToleranceBeneficial
Small
Lactobacillus rhamnosus MAK79L08RImproved Gut Microbiota BalanceBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus MAK79L08RImproved Intestinal Barrier FunctionBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011Improved Intestinal Barrier FunctionBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011Reduced DysbiosisBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011Unchanged Stool ConsistencyNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0343NDAttenuated Enterocyte InjuryBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0343NDReduced Intestinal Permeability DefectBeneficial
Moderate
⬆ Back to top
Unsubscribe anytime. See our Privacy Policy.
Pillser
Supplement Research and Comparison Website: evidence-based information about supplements, their benefits, potential risks, and their efficacy.

Join Our Community

Statements on this website have not been reviewed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. These products are not meant to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. The information here is not a replacement for personal medical advice.