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Modulation of the immune response and metabolism in germ-free rats colonized by the probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius LI01

  • 2021-01-19
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 105(4)
    • Jiafeng Xia
    • Shiman Jiang
    • L. Lv
    • Wen-rui Wu
    • Qiangqiang Wang
    • Qiaomai Xu
    • Jianzhong Ye
    • D. Fang
    • Yating Li
    • Jingjing Wu
    • Xiaoyuan Bian
    • Liya Yang
    • Huiyong Jiang
    • Kaicen Wang
    • Ren Yan
    • Lanjuan Li

Abstract

The gut microbiota plays an important role in multifaceted physiological functions in the host. Previous studies have assessed the probiotic effects of Lactobacillus salivarius LI01. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential effects and putative mechanism of L. salivarius LI01 in immune modulation and metabolic regulation through the monocolonization of germ-free (GF) Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with L. salivarius LI01. The GF rats were separated into two groups and administered a gavage of L. salivarius LI01 or an equal amount of phosphate-buffered saline. The levels of serum biomarkers, such as interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-5, and IL-10, were restored by L. salivarius LI01, which indicated the activation of Th0 cell differentiation toward immune homeostasis. L. salivarius LI01 also stimulated the immune response and metabolic process by altering transcriptional expression in the ileum and liver. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment of the 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, which indicated that L. salivarius LI01 exerts an effect on energy accumulation. The LI01 group showed alterations in fecal carbohydrates accompanied by an increased body weight gain. In addition, L. salivarius LI01 produced indole-3-lactic acid (ILA) and enhanced arginine metabolism by rebalancing the interconversion between arginine and proline. These findings provide evidence showing that L. salivarius LI01 can directly impact the host by modulating immunity and metabolism. KEY POINTS : • Lactobacillus salivarius LI01 conventionalizes the cytokine profile and activates the immune response. • LI01 modulates carbohydrate metabolism and arginine transaction. • LI01 generates tryptophan-derived indole-3-lactic acid. • The cytochrome P450 family contributes to the response to altered metabolites.

Keywords: Germ-free model; Gut microbiota; Immune homeostasis; Lactobacillus salivarius; Metabolism.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lactobacillus salivarius HA-118Improved Arginine MetabolismBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus salivarius HA-118Improved Energy MetabolismBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius HA-118Improved Metabolic RegulationBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius HA-118Increased Body WeightNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus salivarius HA-118Modulated Immune ResponseBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius SD-5208Enhanced Immune ResponseBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius SD-5208Improved Arginine MetabolismBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius SD-5208Increased Energy Accumulation via AMPK Signaling PathwayBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius SD-5208Increased Levels of Indole-3-Lactic AcidBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius SD-5851Improved Metabolic RegulationBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius UALb-07Enhanced Immune ResponseBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius UALb-07Improved Arginine MetabolismBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius UALb-07Improved Serum BiomarkersBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius UALb-07Increased Body WeightNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus salivarius UALb-07Increased Energy LevelsBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius UALs07Improved Arginine MetabolismBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius UALs07Improved Immune HomeostasisBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius UALs07Increased Body WeightNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus salivarius UALs07Increased Energy LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus salivarius VPro 15Enhanced Metabolic FunctionBeneficial
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Lactobacillus salivarius VPro 15Improved Arginine MetabolismBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus salivarius VPro 15Improved Immune HomeostasisBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus salivarius VPro 15Increased Body WeightNeutral
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Lactobacillus salivarius VPro 15Increased Energy LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
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