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Persistence of the Probiotic Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus Strain GG (LGG) in an In Vitro Model of the Gut Microbiome

  • 2022-10-26
  • International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23(21)
    • Karley K. Mahalak
    • Jenni Firrman
    • J. Bobokalonov
    • Adrienne B. Narrowe
    • K. Bittinger
    • S. Daniel
    • C. Tanes
    • Lisa M. Mattei
    • Weizhen Zeng
    • J. Soares
    • M. Kobori
    • Johanna M. S. Lemons
    • P. Tomasula
    • L. Liu


The consumption of probiotics is widely encouraged due to reports of their positive effects on human health. In particular, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) is an approved probiotic that has been reported to improve health outcomes, especially for gastrointestinal disorders. However, how LGG cooperates with the gut microbiome has not been fully explored. To understand the interaction between LGG and its ability to survive and grow within the gut microbiome, this study introduced LGG into established microbial communities using an in vitro model of the colon. LGG was inoculated into the simulated ascending colon and its persistence in, and transit through the subsequent transverse and descending colon regions was monitored over two weeks. The impact of LGG on the existing bacterial communities was investigated using 16S rRNA sequencing and short-chain fatty acid analysis. LGG was able to engraft and proliferate in the ascending region for at least 10 days but was diminished in the transverse and descending colon regions with little effect on short-chain fatty acid abundance. These data suggest that the health benefits of the probiotic LGG rely on its ability to transiently engraft and modulate the host microbial community.

Keywords: 16S rRNA sequencing; LGG; gut microbiome; probiotics; short-chain fatty acids.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosusImproved Gastrointestinal HealthBeneficial
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