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Piper longum L.: A comprehensive review on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and health‐promoting activities

  • 2022-10-18
  • Phytotherapy Research 36(12)
    • P. Biswas
    • Mimosa Ghorai
    • Tulika Mishra
    • A. Gopalakrishnan
    • Debleena Roy
    • A. Mane
    • A. Mundhra
    • N. Das
    • V. M. Mohture
    • M. Patil
    • Md. Habibur Rahman
    • N. Jha
    • G. Batiha
    • S. Saha
    • M. Shekhawat
    • Radha
    • M. Kumar
    • D. Pandey
    • A. Dey

Abstract

Piper longum (family Piperaceae), commonly known as "long-pepper" or "Pippali" grows as a perennial shrub or as an herbaceous vine. It is native to the Indo-Malaya region and widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical world including the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka, Middle-East, and America. The fruits are mostly used as culinary spice and preservatives and are also a potent remedy in various traditional medicinal systems against bronchitis, cough, cold, snakebite, and scorpion-sting and are also used as a contraceptive. Various bioactive-phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, esters, and steroids were identified from the plant extracts and essential oils from the roots and fruits were reported as antimicrobial, antiparasitic, anthelminthic, mosquito-larvicidal, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anticancer, neuro-pharmacological, antihyperglycaemic, hepato-protective, antihyperlipidaemic, antiangiogenic, immunomodulatory, antiarthritic, antiulcer, antiasthmatic, cardioprotective, and anti-snake-venom agents. Many of its pharmacological properties were attributed to its antioxidative and antiinflammatory effects and its ability to modulate a number of signalling pathways and enzymes. This review comprehensively encompasses information on habit, distribution, ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of P. longum in relation to its medicinal importance and health benefits to validate the traditional claims supported by specific scientific experiments. In addition, it also discusses the safety and toxicity studies, application of green synthesis and nanotechnology as well as clinical trials performed with the plant also elucidating research gaps and future perspectives of its multifaceted uses.

Keywords: Piper longum; ethnobotany; pharmacological activity; phytochemistry; piperine; piperlongumine.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Long PepperEnhanced Antimicrobial ResistanceBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperEnhanced Neuropharmacological FunctionBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperImproved Asthmatic ConditionBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperImproved Cardioprotective ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperImproved ImmunomodulationBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperImproved Liver FunctionBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperIncreased Antiangiogenic ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperIncreased Anticancer ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperIncreased Antioxidant ActivityBeneficial
Large
Long PepperIncreased Anti-Venom EfficacyBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperReduced Arthritis SymptomsBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperReduced Glucose LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperReduced Helminth InfectionBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperReduced Inflammatory ActivityBeneficial
Large
Long PepperReduced Lipid LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperReduced Mosquito PopulationBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperReduced Pain IntensityBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperReduced Pathogenic LoadBeneficial
Moderate
Long PepperReduced Ulcer SymptomsBeneficial
Moderate
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