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Risk Factors for the Acquisition of Enterococcus faecium Infection and Mortality in Patients with Enterococcal Bacteremia: A 5-Year Retrospective Analysis in a Tertiary Care University Hospital

  • 2021-01-11
  • Antibiotics 10(1)
    • Atsushi Uda
    • K. Shigemura
    • K. Kitagawa
    • Kayo Osawa
    • Kenichiro Onuma
    • Yonmin Yan
    • Tatsuya Nishioka
    • M. Fujisawa
    • I. Yano
    • T. Miyara


The incidence of bacteremia caused by Enterococcus faecium, which is highly resistant to multiple antibiotics, is increasing in Japan. However, risk factors for the acquisition of E. faecium infection and mortality due to enterococcal bacteremia are not well known. We compared demographic, microbiological, and clinical characteristics using a Cox regression model and univariate analysis. We performed a multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for patients treated between 2014 and 2018. Among 186 patients with enterococcal bacteremia, two groups included in the Kaplan-Meier analysis (E. faecalis (n = 88) and E. faecium (n = 94)) showed poor overall survival in the E. faecium group (HR: 1.92; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-3.66; p = 0.048). The median daily antibiotic cost per patient in the E. faecium group was significantly higher than that in the E. faecalis group ($23 ($13-$34) vs. $34 ($22-$58), p < 0.001). E. faecium strains were more frequently identified with previous use of antipseudomonal penicillins (OR = 4.04, p < 0.001) and carbapenems (OR = 3.33, p = 0.003). Bacteremia from an unknown source (OR = 2.79, p = 0.025) and acute kidney injury (OR = 4.51, p = 0.004) were associated with higher risks of 30-day mortality in patients with enterococcal bacteremia. Therefore, clinicians should provide improved medical management, with support from specialized teams such as those assisting antimicrobial stewardship programs.

Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship; bacteremia; enterococcal; epidemiology; mortality; risk factors.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Enterococcus faeciumIncreased Economic Burden Due to Higher Antibiotic CostsHarmful
Enterococcus faeciumIncreased Mortality in Patients with Enterococcal BacteremiaHarmful
Enterococcus faeciumIncreased Risk of E. faecium InfectionHarmful
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