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Abstract

Objective: The effect of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 immunomodulatory activity on inflammation and coagulation during pneumococcal pneumonia was investigated in malnourished mice.

Methods: Weaned mice were malnourished after they consumed a protein-free diet for 21 d. Malnourished mice were treated for 7 d with a balanced conventional diet (BCD) with L. casei supplementation (BCD+Lc) or without it. The malnourished control group received only a protein-free diet whereas well-nourished control (WNC) mice consumed BCD ad libitum. Mice were challenged by the intranasal route with pneumococci at the end of each dietary treatment. Lung injury, leukocyte recruitment, cytokine production, coagulation tests, and fibrin(ogen) deposition in lungs were evaluated.

Results: Malnourished control mice showed impaired leukocyte recruitment and cytokine production, and more severe lung injuries when compared with WNC mice. Coagulation tests were significantly impaired in malnourished control group versus WNC group. Repletion with BCD or BCD+Lc improved these parameters, but only BCD+Lc mice achieved the values of WNC mice. In addition, the interleukin-10 level was higher in the BCD+Lc group than in the WNC group.

Conclusion: Repletion with supplemental L. casei accelerated recovery of the defense mechanisms against pneumococci by inducing different cytokine profiles. These cytokines would be involved in the improvement of the immune response and in the induction of a more efficient regulation of the inflammatory process, limiting the injury caused by infection.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lacticaseibacillus caseiElevated Interleukin-10 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lacticaseibacillus caseiImproved Coagulation ParametersBeneficial
Moderate
Lacticaseibacillus caseiReduced Lung InjuryBeneficial
Large
Lacticaseibacillus casei R0215Elevated Interleukin-10 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lacticaseibacillus casei R0215Enhanced Leukocyte RecruitmentBeneficial
Moderate
Lacticaseibacillus casei R0215Improved Coagulation ParametersBeneficial
Moderate
Lacticaseibacillus casei R0215Improved Cytokine ProductionBeneficial
Large
Lacticaseibacillus casei R0215Improved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Lacticaseibacillus casei R0215Reduced Severity of Lung InjuriesBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus caseiEnhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus caseiImproved Coagulation ParametersBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus caseiImproved Cytokine ProductionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus caseiImproved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus caseiReduced Lung InjuryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei HA-108Elevated Interleukin-10 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei HA-108Improved Coagulation ParametersBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei HA-108Improved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei HA-108Reduced Lung InjuryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei HA-108Regulated InflammationBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei LC03Enhanced Leukocyte RecruitmentBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei LC03Improved Coagulation ParametersBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei LC03Improved Cytokine ProductionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei LC03Improved Lung Injury OutcomesBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei Lc-11Enhanced Anti-inflammatory ResponseBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei Lc-11Improved Coagulation ParametersBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei Lc-11Improved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei Lc-11Reduced Lung InjuryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei PXN 37Elevated Interleukin-10 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei PXN 37Enhanced Immunity to Pneumococcal InfectionsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei PXN 37Improved Coagulation ParametersBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei PXN 37Reduced Lung InjuryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei PXN 37Regulated InflammationBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei R0215Improved Coagulation Test ResultsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei R0215Improved Cytokine ProductionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei R0215Improved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei R0215Improved Inflammatory RegulationBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei R0215Improved Leukocyte RecruitmentBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei R0215Improved Lung Injury OutcomesBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei SD5213Improved Cytokine ProductionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei SD5213Improved Leukocyte RecruitmentBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei SD5213Regulated Inflammatory ProcessBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei SD-5213Improved Coagulation Test ResultsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei SD-5213Increased IL-10 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei SD-5213Reduced Lung InjuryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei SD-5842Improved Coagulation ParametersBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei SD-5842Improved Cytokine ProductionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei SD-5842Improved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei SD-5842Reduced Lung InjuryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei subsp. caseiElevated Interleukin-10 LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei subsp. caseiImproved Coagulation ParametersBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei subsp. caseiImproved Defense Mechanism RecoveryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei subsp. caseiReduced Severity of Lung InjuriesBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei UALc-03Improved Coagulation ParametersBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei UALc-03Improved Cytokine ProductionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei UALc-03Improved Leukocyte RecruitmentBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei UALc-03Reduced Lung InjuryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei VK4Enhanced Leukocyte RecruitmentBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei VK4Improved Coagulation ParametersBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei VK4Improved Immune ResponseBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei VK4Reduced Inflammation LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus casei VK4Reduced Lung InjuryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei 431Improved Coagulation ParametersBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus paracasei 431Improved Cytokine ProductionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei 431Improved Defense Mechanism RecoveryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei 431Improved Leukocyte RecruitmentBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei 431Reduced Lung InjuryBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei 431Regulated Inflammatory ProcessBeneficial
Moderate

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