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Bifidobacterium animalis in combination with human origin of Lactobacillus plantarum ameliorate neuroinflammation in experimental model of multiple sclerosis by altering CD4+ T cell subset balance.

  • 2017-11
  • Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 95
    • Z. Salehipour
    • D. Haghmorad
    • M. Sankian
    • M. Rastin
    • Reza Nosratabadi
    • M. M. Soltan Dallal
    • N. Tabasi
    • M. Khazaee
    • L. R. Nasiraii
    • M. Mahmoudi

Abstract

Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent reports have shown that probiotics can induce immunomodulatory activity with promising effects in inflammatory diseases. This study was designed to reveal the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum A7, which comprises human commensal bacteria, and Bifidobacterium animalis, a potential probiotic strain, on alleviation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS.

Methods: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotic strains, female C57BL/6 mice (8-10 wks old) received Lactobacillus plantarum A7, Bifidobacterium animalis PTCC 1631or a mixture of both strains through oral administration daily for 22days beginning simultaneous with induction of EAE. The clinical parameters were recorded daily. On Day 22, each mouse was bled, and their spinal cord was removed for histology analysis. The effects of the treatments on regulatory T (Treg) cells level were evaluated using flow cytometry, and T-cell proliferation was assessed using a BrdU incorporation assay. The supernatants of spleen and lymph nodes cultured and mononuclear cells were collected for quantification of different panel of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines by ELISA. The analysis of gene expression was performed at RNA level for transcription factors by real-time PCR.

Results: The results showed that treatment with a mixture of the two strains caused a more significant delay in the time of disease onset and clinical score compared to when the strains were used alone. The pathological features of the disease, such as mononuclear infiltration into the CNS, were also inhibited more significantly by the combinational approach. The results also revealed that treatment with combination of both strains enhanced the population of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+-expressing T-cells in the lymph nodes and the spleen.

Treatment: with our probiotic strains markedly inhibited disease associated cytokines while increased anti-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, L. plantarumA7 and B. animalis ameliorated EAE condition by favoring Th2 and Treg differentiation via up-regulation of Foxp3 and GATA3 in the brain and spleen as well as inhibited the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells.

Conclusions: The current research provided evidence that probiotic therapy with L. plantarum and B. animalis can effectively attenuate EAE progression as well as reinforce the polarization of regulatory T-cells.

Keywords: CNS; Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE); Immunotherapy; Multiple sclerosis; Probiotic; Regulatory T (Treg)-cell.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Bifidobacterium plantarumIncreased Regulatory T-CellsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium plantarumReduced Mononuclear Infiltration in CNSBeneficial
Large

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