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Effect of Encapsulated Lactobacillus bulgaricus on Innate Immune System and Hematological Parameters in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Post-Administration of Pb

  • 2019-04-25
  • Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins 12(2)
    • T. Mohammadian
    • Z. T. Dezfuly
    • Reza Ghanei Motlagh
    • A. Jangaran-Nejad
    • S. S. Hosseini
    • H. Khaj
    • N. Alijani

Abstract

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of probiotic and encapsulated Lactobacillus bulgaricus on hematological and immunological factors after lead toxicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Two hundred and forty fish weighing about 16 ± 3.8 g were divided randomly in to four groups including two groups which were fed by a diet containing ~ 108 CFU g-1Lactobacillus bulgaricus and encapsulated Lactobacillus bulgaricus bacteria and also the third group diet without Lactobacillus bulgaricus. After 45 days, in addition to probiotic (~ 108 CFU g-1), 500 μg kg of lead nitrate was added to the food of the three groups for 21 days. The fourth group (control) was first fed to the normal diet for 45 days then exposed to Pb. Blood samples were collected at days 45, 52, 59, and 66, and hematological and some immunological parameters were assessed. Results showed that hemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, and lysozyme activity in the two probiotics groups were increased significantly up to 45 day (P < 0.05), but followed by a decreasing trend by adding Pb. Complement and bactericidal activity were enhanced significantly in the bulgaricus group (P < 0.05). Respiratory burst activity at day 45 in group bulgaricus had significant increase (P < 0.05) and decreased in all groups particularly after Pb exposure (P < 0.05). The achieved data shows that microencapsulation of probiotics with alginate-chitosan may be a suitable method to improve the fish condition against heavy metal.

Keywords: Encapsulated bacteria; Lactobacillus bulgaricus; Lead; Oncorhynchus mykiss; Probiotic.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lactobacillus bulgaricusEnhanced Bactericidal ActivityBeneficial
Small
Lactobacillus bulgaricusEnhanced Complement Pathway ActivityBeneficial
Small
Lactobacillus bulgaricusIncreased Hemoglobin LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricusIncreased Red Blood Cell CountBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricusIncreased Respiratory Burst ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricusIncreased Serum Lysozyme ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricusIncreased White Blood Cell CountBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus & Lactobacillus PlantarumIncreased Hemoglobin LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus & Lactobacillus PlantarumIncreased Red Blood Cell CountBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus & Lactobacillus PlantarumIncreased Respiratory Burst ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus & Lactobacillus PlantarumIncreased Serum Lysozyme ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus & Lactobacillus PlantarumIncreased White Blood Cell CountBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus & Lactobacillus PlantarumReduced Hemoglobin LevelHarmful
Large
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus & Lactobacillus PlantarumReduced Red Blood Cell CountHarmful
Large
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus & Lactobacillus PlantarumReduced Respiratory Burst ActivityHarmful
Moderate
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus & Lactobacillus PlantarumReduced ToxicityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus & Lactobacillus PlantarumReduced White Blood Cells After Lead ExposureHarmful
Large
Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB42Enhanced Bactericidal ActivityBeneficial
Small
Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB42Enhanced Complement Pathway ActivityBeneficial
Small
Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB42Increased Hemoglobin LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB42Increased Red Blood Cell CountBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB42Increased Respiratory Burst ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB42Increased Serum Lysozyme ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB42Increased White Blood Cell CountBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB42Reduced Blood Parameters Post Lead ExposureHarmful
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB42Reduced Respiratory Burst ActivityHarmful
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus Lb-87Enhanced Bactericidal ActivityBeneficial
Small
Lactobacillus bulgaricus Lb-87Enhanced Complement Pathway ActivityBeneficial
Small
Lactobacillus bulgaricus Lb-87Increased Hemoglobin LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus Lb-87Increased Red Blood Cell CountBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus Lb-87Increased Respiratory Burst ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus Lb-87Increased Serum Lysozyme ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus Lb-87Increased White Blood Cell CountBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus SD-6833Enhanced Bactericidal ActivityBeneficial
Small
Lactobacillus bulgaricus SD-6833Enhanced Complement Pathway ActivityBeneficial
Small
Lactobacillus bulgaricus SD-6833Increased Hemoglobin LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus SD-6833Increased Red Blood Cell CountBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus SD-6833Increased Respiratory Burst ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus SD-6833Increased Serum Lysozyme ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus SD-6833Increased White Blood Cell CountBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus SD-6833Reduced Blood Parameters Post Lead ExposureHarmful
Moderate
Lactobacillus bulgaricus SD-6833Reduced Heavy Metal ToxicityBeneficial
Moderate
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