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Abstract

This study investigated the effect of individual and combination of dietary pre- and probiotics (β-glucan, 3 mg/g; mannan oligosaccharide (MOS), 4 mg/g; and Lactobacillus plantarum; 108 CFU/mg diet) on growth performance, blood immune parameters, expression of immune related genes, and intestinal microbial of Caspian trout (Salmo trutta caspius). On the basis of feeding with immunostimulant diets, the fish were assigned into eight groups denoted as: control (basal diet), bβ (basal diet + β-glucan), bM (basal diet + MOS), bLp (basal diet + L. plantarum), bβLp (basal diet + β-glucan + L. plantarum), bMLp (basal diet + MOS + L. plantarum), bMβ (basal diet + MOS + β-glucan), and bMβLp (basal diet + MOS + β-glucan + L. plantarum). All of the immunostimulant diets, in general, reduced feed intake (FI) and food conversion ratio (FCR) and increased WG, PER, and final weight. Condition factor (CF) demonstrated the lowest level in the experimental group received bMβLp. Total lipid increased in the fish received the additives, especially bM and bMβ. Ash content demonstrated significant increase in the fish fed on bβ and bMβLp, whereas moisture content was reduced in the group fed with L. plantarum-supplemented diet. All immunostimulant diets enhanced the activity and levels of lysozyme, Immunoglobulin M (IgM), and serum alternative complement activity (ACH50); the highest value for these indices was observed in the groups fed with bMβ, bMβLp, and bβLp. bMβ-treated fish group displayed the highest cortisol and glucose levels. bM diet induced the highest mRNA transcription of TNF-α1 in head kidney, whereas bLp, bMβ, and bMβLp showed no effect. IL1β exhibited the greatest up-regulation, about 8.75 fold change, in response to the diet supplemented only with β-glucan. bβLp and bβ significantly enhanced the relative IL-8 mRNA expression in the head kidney (about 2.75 and 1.9 folds, respectively), yet in response to bMβLp treatment it showed a decrease of about 5.7 times lower than the control group. In addition, intestinal population of L. plantarum showed the highest loads in the groups fed on the diets which were treated with the probiotic. Taken together, combinational use of these immunostimulants enhanced humoral innate immune system, whereas their individual and combinational application could increase and decrease the transcription of inflammation-related genes, respectively.

Keywords: Caspian trout; Immunity; Lactobacillus plantarum; Mannan oligosaccharide; Synbiotic; β-Glucan.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05Increased Gut Lactobacillus plantarum PopulationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05Increased Immunoglobulin M LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05Increased Serum Alternative Complement ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05Increased Serum Lysozyme ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05Reduced Moisture ContentNeutral
Small
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05MImproved Innate Humoral ImmunityBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05MIncreased Gut Lactobacillus plantarum PopulationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05MIncreased Ileal IL-8 mRNA ExpressionBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05MReduced Pro-inflammatory Gene TranscriptionBeneficial
Moderate

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