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The effects of a diet containing the probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the survival and growth of Haliotis discus hannai were evaluated by measuring growth and hematological parameters and the expression levels of nonspecific immune genes. In addition, the abalone's response to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection was assessed. H. discus hannai (shell length: 29.35 ± 1.81 mm, body weight: 4.28 ± 0.23 g) were exposed to an 8-week culture experiment in indoor aquariums and a 2-week V. parahaemolyticus artificial infection experiment. In each experiment, the control group (C) was fed daily with the basal feed; the experimental groups were fed daily with the experimental feed, prepared by spraying B. amyloliquefaciens onto the basal feed at final concentrations of 103 (group A1), 105 (A2), and 107 (A3) cfu/g. The survival rate, body weight specific growth rate, and food conversion efficiency in A2 and A3 were significantly higher than those in A1 and C (P < 0.05). The total number of blood lymphocytes, the O2- and NO levels produced from respiratory burst, the activities of acid phosphatase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and the expression levels of catalase and thiol peroxidase in A2 were not significantly different from those in A3, but these factors were significantly higher in A2 compared to A1 and C (P < 0.05). The total antioxidant capacity and expression levels of glutathione S-transferase in A1, A2 and A3 were significantly higher than those in C (P < 0.05). At day 9 after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, all abalone in C were dead; at the end of the experiment, the cumulative mortality of abalone in A2 was significantly lower than that in any other group (P < 0.05). Thus, the experimental feed containing 105 cfu/g B. amyloliquefaciens not only facilitated the food intake and growth of abalone, but also effectively enhanced their non-specific immunity and resistance to V. parahaemolyticus infection. In this regard, B. amyloliquefaciens may be a useful probiotic strain for abalone aquaculture.

Keywords: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Disease resistance; Growth; Haliotis discus hannai; Immunity.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Bacillus amyloliquefaciensImproved Antioxidant CapacityBeneficial
Bacillus amyloliquefaciensImproved Growth RateBeneficial
Bacillus amyloliquefaciensImproved ImmunityBeneficial
Bacillus amyloliquefaciensImproved Resistance to V. parahaemolyticus InfectionBeneficial

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