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Exopolysaccharides of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Amy-1 Mitigate Inflammation by Inhibiting ERK1/2 and NF-κB Pathways and Activating p38/Nrf2 Pathway

  • 2022-09-06
  • International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23(18)
    • Wei-Wen Sung
    • Yunwei Lin
    • Shen-Da Huang
    • Hsueh-Ling Cheng

Abstract

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is a probiotic for animals. Evidence suggests that diets supplemented with B. amyloliquefaciens can reduce inflammation; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear and requires further exploration. The exopolysaccharides of B. amyloliquefaciens amy-1 displayed hypoglycemic activity previously, suggesting that they are bioactive molecules. In addition, they counteracted the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on inducing cellular insulin resistance in exploratory tests. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory effect and molecular mechanisms of the exopolysaccharide preparation of amy-1 (EPS). Consequently, EPS reduced the expression of proinflammatory factors, the phagocytic activity and oxidative stress of LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. In animal tests, EPS effectively ameliorated ear inflammation of mice. These data suggested that EPS possess anti-inflammatory activity. A mechanism study revealed that EPS inhibited the nuclear factor-κB pathway, activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38, and prohibited the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, but had no effect on the c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK). EPS also activated the anti-oxidative nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Evidence suggested that p38, but not JNK, was involved in activating the Nrf2 pathway. Together, these mechanisms reduced the severity of inflammation. These findings support the proposal that exopolysaccharides may play important roles in the anti-inflammatory functions of probiotics.

Keywords: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; MAPK; Nrf2; anti-inflammation; anti-oxidation; exopolysaccharides; immune modulation; p38.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Bacillus amyloliquefaciensActivation of Nrf2 PathwayBeneficial
Moderate
Bacillus amyloliquefaciensReduced InflammationBeneficial
Large
Bacillus amyloliquefaciensReduced Proinflammatory Factor ExpressionBeneficial
Moderate

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