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Abstract

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main biotechnological tool for the production of Baker's or Brewer's biomasses, largely applied in beverage and fermented-food production. Through its gene expression reprogramming and production of compounds that inactivate the growth of other microorganisms, S. cerevisiae is able to grow in adverse environments and in complex microbial consortia, as in fruit pulps and root flour fermentations. The distinct set of up-regulated genes throughout yeast biomass propagation includes those involved in sugar fermentation, ethanol metabolization, and in protective responses against abiotic stresses. These high abundant proteins are precursors of several peptides with promising health-beneficial activities such as antihypertensive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-obesity, antidiabetes, and mitogenic properties. An in silico investigation of these S. cerevisiae derived peptides produced during yeast biomass propagation or induced by physicochemical treatments were performed using four algorithms to predict antimicrobial candidates encrypted in abundantly expressed stress-related proteins encoded by different genes like AHP1, TSA1, HSP26, SOD1, HSP10, and UTR2, or metabolic enzymes involved in carbon source utilization, like ENO1/2, TDH1/2/3, ADH1/2, FBA1, and PDC1. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and enolase II are noteworthy precursor proteins, since they exhibited the highest scores concerning the release of antimicrobial peptide candidates. Considering the set of genes upregulated during biomass propagation, we conclude that S. cerevisiae biomass, a food-grade product consumed and marketed worldwide, should be considered a safe and nonseasonal source for designing next-generation bioactive agents, especially protein encrypting antimicrobial peptides that display broad spectra activity and could reduce the emergence of microbial resistance while also avoiding cytotoxicity.

Keywords: GAPDH and enolase II; GRAS antimicrobial peptides; abiotic stresses; food safety and preservation; yeast biomass.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Saccharomyces cerevisiaeEnhanced Antimicrobial ResistanceBeneficial
Large
Saccharomyces cerevisiaeImproved ImmunomodulationBeneficial
Moderate
Saccharomyces cerevisiaeIncreased Antioxidant ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Saccharomyces cerevisiaeIncreased Mitogenic ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Saccharomyces cerevisiaeReduced Glucose LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Saccharomyces cerevisiaeReduced HypertensionBeneficial
Moderate
Saccharomyces cerevisiaeReduced ObesityBeneficial
Moderate
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentateImproved ImmunomodulationBeneficial
Moderate
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentateIncreased Antioxidant ActivityBeneficial
Moderate
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentateIncreased Cell DivisionBeneficial
Moderate
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentateReduced Blood PressureBeneficial
Moderate
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentateReduced ObesityBeneficial
Moderate
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentateReduced Risk of Antimicrobial ResistanceBeneficial
Large
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentateReduced Risk of DiabetesBeneficial
Moderate
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