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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425).

Keywords: IFN-γ; NK cell activity; immune function; probiotics.

Research Insights

SupplementHealth OutcomeEffect TypeEffect Size
Bifidobacterium animalisImproved Immune Cell FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium animalisImproved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis B420Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactisImproved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis B420Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis BL818Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis BLA80Enhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis BLA80Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis BLC-1Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis HA-194Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis ISS BifImproved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis MAK16B42LImproved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis R101-8Enhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis R101-8Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis R101-8Increased IFN-γ LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Bifidobacterium lactis SD-5219Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis UABla-12Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis VK2Elevated IgG1 LevelsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium lactis VK2Improved Immune Cell FunctionBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium plantarumElevated Immunoglobulin G1 LevelsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium plantarumElevated Interleukin-12 LevelsBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium plantarumImproved Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Bifidobacterium plantarumIncreased Interferon-Gamma LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Lpc-37Improved Immune Cell FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Lpc-37Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Lpc-37Increased IFN-γ ConcentrationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus & Lactobacillus PlantarumImproved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus & Lactobacillus PlantarumImproved Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus & Lactobacillus PlantarumIncreased Immunoglobulin G1 LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus & Lactobacillus PlantarumIncreased Serum Interferon Gamma LevelsBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus caseiEnhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus caseiImproved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei PXN 37Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei PXN 37Improved Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei PXN 37Increased Interferon-Gamma LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei R0215Enhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei R0215Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei R0215Increased Interferon-Gamma LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus casei SD-5842Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus lactis LI-23Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus lactis LLa61Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracaseiImproved Immune Cell FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracaseiImproved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei 431Enhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei 431Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei 431Increased IFN-γ ConcentrationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus paracasei DSM 13434Improved Immune Cell FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei DSM 13434Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei DSM 13434Increased Interferon-Gamma LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei HA-196Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei HA-196Improved Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei HA-196Increased Interferon-Gamma LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502Enhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei LPC09Enhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei LPC09Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei LPC09Increased IFN-γ ConcentrationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus paracasei MCC1849Improved Immune Cell FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei MCC1849Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei SD5275Enhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei SD5275Increased Immunoglobulin G1 LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei UALpc-04Enhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei UALpc-04Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei UALpc-04Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei UALpc-04Improved Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus paracasei UALpc-04Increased Interferon-Gamma LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarumImproved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DImproved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DImproved Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum 14DIncreased Interferon-Gamma LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum DR7Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 6595Elevated IgG1 LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 6595Improved Immune Cell FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 6595Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 6595Increased IFN-γ ConcentrationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 6596Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum HA-119Improved Immune Cell FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum HA-119Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum HA-119Increased Interferon-Gamma LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum KABP™-061Enhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum KABP™-061Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum KABP™-061Increased Interferon-Gamma LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum L-137Elevated Serum IFN-γ LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum L-137Enhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum L-137Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum LP-01Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum LP-01Improved Natural Killer Cell FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum LP-01Increased Interferon-Gamma LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum LP09Elevated Immunoglobulin G1 LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum LP09Enhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum LP09Increased IFN-γ ConcentrationBeneficial
Moderate
Lactobacillus plantarum Lp-115Enhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum Lp-115Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum Lp-115Increased Interferon-Gamma LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum R1012Elevated Serum IFN-γ LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum R1012Enhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum R1012Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum Rosell-AEnhanced Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum Rosell-AImproved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum Rosell-AIncreased Interferon-Gamma LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum SD5209Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum SD-5209Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05Elevated IgG1 LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05Improved Natural Killer Cell ActivityBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05Increased Interferon-Gamma LevelsBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05MImproved Immune Cell FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05MImproved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum VPro 10Improved Immune Cell FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum VPro 10Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large
Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1Improved Immune FunctionBeneficial
Large

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